The Effects of Strategy-Based Instruction on Taiwnese College Students' English Listening Comprehension
Since the listening is a receptive skill, there is little known of the listening process. There are some similarities between listening and reading. However, for second/foreign language learners encounter more difficulties while listening to than reading the same language. They always complain that the same material they can understand by reading but not by listening. Since there are no explicit pauses between words like the white blanks in reading, it is difficult for second/foreign language learn to recognize the words in listening.
Listening is complex process of constructing meaning of what is said. In the real world, there’s no chance for listener to replay what is said but the reader can have chance to eyeball the previous paragraph for inferences. Rost (2002) stated that comprehension is the process of relating language to concepts in one’s memory and to references in the real world. Listeners are constantly mapping and updating the references that the speaker uses. The listening comprehending process involves understanding and memory capacity. While we know more about the cognitive nature of listening and the role of listening in communication, L2 listening remains the least researched of all four language skills. This may be due to its implicit nature, the ephemeral nature of the acoustic input and the difficulty in accessing the processes (Vandergrift, 2007).
Although there are studies focused on the strategy-based instruction in listening, different researchers arrive at different conclusions about the pedagogical implications of their findings (Graham 2006), such as Goh (2000) and Hasan (2000). How top-down strategies and bottom-up skills are orchestrated through the effective deployment of metacognitive strategies to build meaning continues to be an important research question for understanding the approach of effective listening. This study is to adopt the integrated approach, combining bottom-up with top-down approach, to instruct EFL freshmen with strategies in listening tasks.
There were two classes in this 12-week strategy instruction experiment, one as the experimental group, the other as the control group to compare. Except for listening tasks, learners of the experimental group will received listening strategy instruction that learners of the control group will not. The results of this study will be presented at the end of this paper and the pedagogical implications will be discussed and proposed finally.
Keywords: ESL, EFL, Listening Comprehension, Listening Strategy, Strategy-Based Instruction
Dr. Janet Yu-gi Chao
Associate Professor, Department of English, National Changhua University of Education
I teach College English for Freshmen and the English Teaching Practicum for the Seniors, as well as the Research Methods and Bibliography for the first-year graduates and the Special Topics in Teaching and Researching English Listening. Moreover, I teach the Theory and Practice of Teaching English as a Foreign Language for the graduates in the night and summer programs. Most of these graduates ae current teachers at elementary or secondary schools. I was graduated from the University of Minnesota at Twin Cities campus with a Ph. D. degree in the Second Language and Culture Education. I have been interested in finding ways for students to cope with the demands of authentic English listening. I have constructed a model of effective listening strategies in my doctoral dissertation. I have put efforts in finding the difficulties Taiwanese students encounter while learning English. Currently I'm interested in implementing the effective strategies into the classroom instruction to help Taiwanese students better develop their EFL listening comprehension.